The story of Zimbabwe’s Marange diamonds: Pollution, Politics, Power

Published on The Africa Report, Dec. 12, 2012 (This article was produced with the support of the Environmental Justice Trade and Liabilities project (EJOLT) research project).

Apart from water and noise pollution, Marange is also experiencing serious air pollution. The inhabitants of Marange believe their village would be a better place to live in had it not been for the discovery of enormous deposits of alluvial diamonds in 2006, believed to constitute approximately 25% of the world’s known deposits …  

… Water Pollution:

Save or Sabi River used to be the source of life for several villages starting from Marange and stretching several kilometers downstream. The river provided fish, drinking water for both humans and livestock and domestic chores such as laundry. Villagers also bathed in the Save river which also acted as one of the few recreational facilities for young boys and girls who flocked the mighty river for swimming escapades. In some parts food was also grown alongside the river, more so due to the fact that Marange is a semi-arid region which experiences perennial droughts.  Renowned and highly successful Irrigation schemes at Nyanyadzi and Birchnough Bridge also drew water from the Save River.

However, since the commencement of commercial diamond mining activities in Marange in September 2009, villagers have watched in agony as life is rapidly being squeezed out of this once Might River by mining companies. A scientific study commissioned by the [I] Zimbabwe Environmental law Association[/I] and carried out by [I] The University of Zimbabwe[/I] confirmed the fears of villagers and nongovernmental organizations who have long suspected that companies were polluting Save River. The report concluded that the water in Save River is heavily contaminated ‘to such an extent that communities cannot use the water for drinking purposes anymore whilst coming into contact with the water and mud cause an itching of the skin’. The report also noted that water in Save River was turbid or muddy due to discharge from the Anjin plant, thereby making it unsuitable for domestic consumption. The researchers also concluded that Villagers could develop cancer due to a heavy presence of chromium and nickel in the river.

Villagers interviewed by Center for Natural Resource Governance said they are now digging in the sand to fetch water for laundry as the water in the river is too muddy. Several boreholes have dried up in recent years with locals pointing accusing fingers to diamond mining companies whose activities, they suspect, have affected the water table. Their argument is supported by Prof. N.C Saxena of the [I] Center of Mining Environment in India[/I] who observed that ‘mining either by opencast or by underground methods damages the water regime and thus causes a reduction in the overall availability of water in and around the mining areas’, adding that ‘in the sedimentary deposit mining areas the water table and aquifers are damaged and thus the availability of water from these sources reduces’. Given that all the companies are into alluvial diamond mining using the open cast system, there is massive clearance of forests and the top soil in Marange, thereby affected both the water table and the quality of water. The clearance of land and forests in preference to diamond mining also means loss of wildlife habitat.

Air and Noise Pollution: … //

… Politicization of Diamonds: How villagers lost their voice:

Others argue that the unfortunate events unfolding in Marange are a mirror of the political turmoil and collapse of governance systems in Zimbabwe which can be traced back to 2000 when President Mugabe’s ZANU PF turned to land grab and other self destructive policies for political survival. Politics has dominated everything happening in Marange since the discovery of diamonds in 2006. Three of the four companies mining diamonds in Marange are joint ventures between some private companies and the [I]Zimbabwe Mining Development Corporation[/I] (ZMDC) whilst the fourth, Marange Resources, is wholly owned by the Zimbabwe government through ZMDC. The companies were awarded special grants by President Mugabe to shield them from normal tender procedures and scrutiny. None of the four diamond mining companies has any prior history in diamond mining elsewhere in the world.

At one point the diamond fields were heavily guarded by several hundred soldiers and police who committed all types of human rights abuses, thereby creating an aura of terror in the surrounding communities.

After securing the diamond fields in 2009, government announced that families living inside and near the diamond fields would be relocated. Several meetings had been held between government officials and the villagers but all this came to nothing, with villagers demanding compensation before relocation. However, in December 2010 government abandoned negotiations and turned to state security agents in order to force Marange villagers to relocate to Arda Transau, about 40KM north of Marange. The forced relocation exercise was well timed.

In December 2010 ZANU PF held its 11th National People’s Conference in Mutare and seized the opportunity to break the resistance of the villagers. A group of state security agents and ZANU PF officials descended on Marange and threatened villagers with unspecified action if they did not comply with the order to relocate. This brought back memories of November 2008 when members of the Zimbabwe National Army gunned down over 200 artisanal miners and villagers as overnment moved in to take control of the lucrative diamond fields.

Villagers were given a few hours to load their belongings and livestock onto waiting trucks. Their homesteads were razed to the ground by bulldozers as they watched helplessly before being taken to their new homes at Arda Transau. After the December 2010 forced relocations and home demolitions, few dared resist orders to vacate their premises. Diamond mining was politicized such that the rights of villagers were violated with impunity.

Homes were destroyed without any valuation, making it difficult for the villagers to claim reasonable compensations in the future. No agreements were signed between the relocated families and the mining companies or government regarding compensation. The exercise was overseen and implemented by the office of the Resident Minister and Provincial Governor of Manicaland, Chris Mushohwe, who was also the ZANU PF losing candidate for Mutare West in the 2008 harmonized elections.

Politics also reared its ugly head during the launch of the [I] Zimunya Marange Community Share Ownership Trust[/I] by President Mugabe in July 2012. Political analysts suspect the community share ownership trusts, a product of the controversial economic empowerment and indigenization law, are being used by ZANU PF to woo voters ahead of a general election expected in 2013. The launch of the [I]Zimunya Marange community share trust[/I] was marred by controversy as the Member of Parliament for the constituency Hon Shua Mudiwa was not invited to the event, which looked more like a ZANU PF political rally.

Militarization of Marange Diamonds: … //

… Artisanal Mining:

The army and fellow state security agents have been involved in illegal digging with artisanal miners whom they charge ‘protection fees’ in the form of both money and diamonds. The unregulated artisanal diamond mining activities have contributed to deforestation, land degradation and water pollution. Artisanal miners dig randomly, usually operating under the cover of darkness at night and leave behind large open pits which are contributing to soil erosion and river siltation. Early in the morning artisanal miners and their military ‘escorts’ take their diamond rich alluvial soil to a nearby dam where they select gems. This is also contributing to the depreciation of water quality in Marange as the water in the dam is now muddy and unfit for domestic use.

Artisanal diamond mining is criminalized in Zimbabwe. The country lost the opportunity to regulate artisanal diamond mining when it backtracked on the Swakopmund agreement it reached with the Kimberly Process Certification Scheme in Namibia in November 2009. The Joint Work Plan, also known as the Swakopmund Agreement that was developed by Zimbabwe and the KPCS stipulated that Zimbabwe would create a legal framework for artisanal miners to operate legally in Marange and sell their diamonds to government.

If implemented, the Joint Work Plan had several advantages for Zimbabwe. First it would ensure that artisanal miners were protected by the law whilst also contributing to the economic growth of Zimbabwe. Further, it would ensure that the ‘blood diamonds’ tag on Marange diamonds would be exorcised since artisanal miners would be mining in a violence free environment. The agreement would also benefit the environment since government was going to regulate and monitor the activities of artisanal miners. In other words artisanal miners would be held to account for their actions. Failure by government to implement the [I]Joint Work plan[/I] has ensured that illicit digging continues at a great cost to the environment and to the nation.

Conflict and Environmental Degradation: … //

… Cheaper to pollute and pay a fine:

Currently these fees are generally small in relation to the cost of environmental protection equipment and it is generally less expensive to pay the fees than to install anti-pollution devices. Further, the applicable laws do not generally require clean-up of environmental pollutants, and when clean-up is required, the applicable laws provide no guidance as to the extent to which the clean-up must be carried out.”

Early 2012 Anjin was fined $14 000 by EMA for causing water pollution in Marange and ordered to rehabilitate the affected area. However a $14 000 fine is too insignificant for a company dealing in billions of dollars annually, making it cheaper to pollute and pay a fine than to prevent pollution, as argued by Grandwell.

Marange is a restricted area and those entering the area should obtain Police clearance. The parliamentary portfolio committee on mines and energy was denied entry to Marange a record three times. At one time even Prime Minister Morgan Tsvangirai was also denied access to Marange. Some trespassers have met the most severe forms of punishments which include murder, torture and rape.

Whilst restricting movement in Marange is understandable due to the ease with which alluvial diamonds can be extracted, the restriction has served to cover up many unpleasant things unfolding in Marange such as pollution and human rights abuses. The parliamentary portfolio committees on mines and energy and the environment must demand that they play their legitimate role of ensuring that mining activities in Marange comply with domestic laws and do not jeopardize the lives of villagers.
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